In contrast to natural fibers, which come from living things like plants or animals, synthetic fibres are man-made fibres that are produced by chemical synthesis. Polymers, which are long chains of recurring monomer molecular strucutre, are used to create synthetic fibres. The monomers, which are typically derived from oil or gas, are converted into fibres using a variety of techniques, including extrusion, spinning, or drawing.
Some fibres have been referred to as synthetic since they are manufactured artificially by humans and are not present in nature. The fact that they differ from natural fibres in terms of their durability, flexibility, strength, and wrinkle resistance is another factor. Additionally, synthetic fibres may be altered to fit a variety of uses and applications, including clothes, textiles, carpets, ropes, and nets.
Some examples of synthetic fibres are:
- Rayon: This is a semi-synthetic fibre that is made from cellulose, which is a natural polymer found in wood pulp. Rayon is soft, absorbent, and comfortable. It can be dyed in various colours and is used for making fabrics, bedsheets, carpets, etc.
- Nylon: This is a fully synthetic fibre that is made from coal, water, and air. Nylon is very lustrous, easy to wash, and elastic. It dries quickly and retains its shape. Nylon is used for making seat belts, sleeping bags, socks, ropes, parachutes, fishing nets, etc.
- Polyester: This is another fully synthetic fibre that is made from coal, water, air, and petroleum. Polyester is made from esters, which are chemical compounds derived from acids and alcohols. Polyester is easy to wash and remains wrinkle-free. It is suitable for making dress material, raincoats, jackets, etc.
Natural fibres dosent offer various benefits over synthetic fibers, including being cheaper, stronger, more adaptable, and more resistant to environmental conditions. The fact that they are less breathable, more flammable, more susceptible to static electricity, and more destructive to the environment are some of their drawbacks. As a result, it’s crucial to utilise properly and to pick the appropriate fibre type for the job.